Born 28 January 1728 in Stafford, Litchfield, Connecticut, USA
Died 16 February 1785 in Woodbury, Litchfield, Connecticut, USA
Member Committee of Safety, Surgeon Continental Army – captured at White Plains. In the battle of Danbury he acted as regimental surgeon, and in the engagement at White Plains, N. Y. He was captured by the British and sent to New York City. While he was held by the British he helped other patriot prisoners in the old Dutch Church on Nassau Street, he was not released until the surrender of Gen. Cornwall.
Battle of White Plains
On October 20, General Washington sent Colonel Rufus Putnam out on a reconnaissance mission from his camp at Harlem Heights. Putnam discovered the general placement of the British troop locations and recognized the danger to the army and its supplies. When he reported this to Washington that evening, Washington immediately dispatched Putnam with orders to Lord Stirling, whose troops were furthest north, to immediately march to White Plains. They arrived at White Plains at 9 am on October 21, and were followed by other units of the army as the day progressed. Washington decided to withdraw most of the army to White Plains, leaving a garrison of 1,200 men under Nathanael Greene to defend Fort Washington on Manhattan. General Howe’s army advanced slowly, with troops from his center and right moving along the road from New Rochelle to White Plains, while a unit of Loyalists occupied Mamaroneck. The latter was attacked that night by a detachment of Lord Stirling’s troops under John Haslet, who took more than thirty prisoners as well as supplies, but suffered several killed and 15 wounded. As a result, Howe moved elements of his right wing to occupy Mamaroneck. On October 22, Howe was reinforced by the landing at New Rochelle of an additional 8,000 troops under the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen.
Washington established his headquarters at the Elijah Miller House in North White Plains on October 23, and chose a defensive position that he fortified with two lines of entrenchments. The trenches were situated on raised terrain, protected on the right by the swampy ground near the Bronx River, with steeper hills further back as a place of retreat. The American defenses were 3 miles (4.8 km) long. Beyond that, on the right, was Chatterton’s Hill, which commanded the plain over which the British would have to advance. The hill was initially occupied by militia companies numbering several hundred, probably including John Brooks’ Massachusetts militia company.
On October 24 and 25, Howe’s army moved from New Rochelle to Scarsdale, where they established a camp covering the eastern bank of the Bronx River. This move was apparently made in the hopes of catching Charles Lee’s column, which had to alter its route toward White Plains and execute a forced march at night to avoid them. Howe remained at Scarsdale until the morning of October 28, when his forces marched toward White Plains, with British troops on the right under General Henry Clinton, and primarily Hessian troops on the left under General von Heister.
While Washington was inspecting the terrain to determine where it was best to station his troops, messengers alerted him that the British were advancing. Returning to his headquarters, he ordered 1,500 men under Joseph Spencer out to slow the British advance, and sent Haslet and the 1st Delaware Regiment, along with Alexander McDougall’s brigade (Ritzema’s 3rd New York, Charles Webb’s Connecticut, William Smallwood’s Maryland, and McDougall’s own regiments) to reinforce Chatterton Hill.
Spencer’s force crossed the Bronx River, set up behind a stone wall, and exchanged fire with the Hessians led by Colonel Johann Rall that were at the head of the British left column. Eventually forced to retreat when Clinton’s column threatened their flank, these companies retreated across the Bronx River, while fire from the troops on Chatterton Hill covered their move. Rall’s troops attempted to gain the hill, but were repelled by fire from Haslet’s troops and the militia, and retreated to a nearby hilltop on the same side of the river. This concerted defense brought the entire British army, which was maneuvering as if to attack the entire American line, to a stop.
While Howe and his command conferred, the Hessian artillery on the left opened fire on the hilltop position, where they succeeded in driving the militia into a panicked retreat. The arrival of McDougall and his brigade helped to rally them, and a defensive line was established, with the militia on the right and the Continentals arrayed along the top of the hill. Howe finally issued orders, and while most of his army waited, a detachment of British and Hessian troops was sent to take the hill.
John Fortescue’s History of the British Army says that Howe’s casualties numbered 214 British and 99 Hessians. However, Rodney Atwood points out that Fortescue’s figure for the Hessians includes the entire Hessian casualties from 19–28 October and that in fact only 53 of these casualties were incurred at the Battle of White Plains. This revised figure would give a total of 267 British and Hessians killed, wounded or missing at White Plains. Henry Dawson, on the other hand, gives Howe’s loss as 47 killed, 182 wounded and 4 missing. The American loss is uncertain. Theodore Savas and J. David Dameron give a range of 150-500 killed, wounded and captured. Samuel Roads numbers the casualties of 47 killed and 70 wounded. Henry Dawson estimates 50 killed, 150 wounded and 17 missing for McDougall’s and Spencer’s commands but has no information on the losses in Haslet’s regiment or the Massachusetts militia units.
The two generals remained where they were for two days, while Howe reinforced the position on Chatterton Hill, and Washington organized his army for retreat into the hills. With the arrival of additional Hessian and Waldeck troops under Lord Percy on October 30, Howe planned to act against the Americans the following day. However, a heavy rain fell the whole next day, and when Howe was finally prepared to act, he awoke to find that Washington had again eluded his grasp.
Washington withdrew his army into the hills to the north on the night of October 31, establishing a camp near North Castle. Howe chose not to follow, instead attempting without success to draw Washington out. On November 5, he turned his army south to finish evicting Continental Army troops from Manhattan, a task he accomplished with the November 16 Battle of Fort Washington.
Washington eventually crossed the Hudson River at Peekskill with most of his army, leaving New England regiments behind to guard supply stores and important river crossings. Later, British movements chased him across New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, and the British established a chain of outposts across New Jersey. Washington, seeing an opportunity for a victory to boost the nation’s morale, crossed the Delaware and surprised Rall’s troops in the December 26 Battle of Trenton.